Why should we Fear Allah??

"FEAR ALLAH! AND OBEY ONLY THE MESSENGER, THROUGH WHOM ALLAH REVEALED: "We have not sent down the Book (the Quran) to you (O Muhammad), except that you may explain clearly unto them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believe."

Why Should we Fear Allah?
Reasons for fearing Allah: (By Imam Ghazali, Imam Ibn Qayyim and Ibn Rajab Hanbali )
"O servants of Allah, there are many reasons why we should fear. The following is a list of a number of them; the fear of death before repenting; the fear of not living up to one's repentance and breaking one's promise; the fear of not being able to fulfil Allah's obligations; the fear of losing one's softness in the heart and its hardening; the fear of losing consistency; the fear of allowing temptations to dominate; the fear of Allah making one's self responsible for doing goods deeds because of conceit; the fear of becoming arrogant and egotistical due to the abundance of bounties; the fear of being distracted from Allah by other creation; the fear of being led to an evil ending through excessive bounties; the fear of being punished early (i.e. in this world); the fear of being disgraced at the time of death; the fear of being beguiled by the glitter of this world; the fear of Allah revealing one's secret in one's state of oblivion; the fear of being stamped with a bad death at the time of death; the fear of the pangs of death; the fear of the questions of Munkar and Nakeer in the grave; the fear of the punishment of the grave; the fear of the horrors of the horizon (at the time of resurrection); the fear of the awe during the presentation in front of Allah; the fear and the shame of being naked (at the time of resurrection); the fear of being questioned about every little thing in life; the fear of the bridge (over Hell) and its sharpness; the fear of the fire, its chains and its torment; the fear of being deprived of Paradise, the Eternal and everlasting kingdom and abode and the fear of being deprived of seeing Allah's tremendous visage. The jurist of Samarkand says that the person who does one good deed should be weary of four things (imagine what a person who commits a sin should be afraid of): The fear of not being accepted because Allah says:`Allah only accepts from those who fear.' [Maidah: 27]
The fear of showing off, for Allah says: `They have been instructed to worship Allah sincerely; religion is for him Alone.' [Bayinah: 5]
The fear of preserving the good deed because Allah says: `Whoever brings a good deed shall have ten times its reward.' [An`am: 161]
The fear of being deserted in performing good deeds, for Allah says: `My reconciliation (with good) is only through Allah; it is upon Him that I trust and it is to Him that I resort.' [Hud: 88]

The Fruits of Fear: {Ghazali (rahmatullahi `alayhi)
`Fear rips away desires and muddens luxuries so that cherished sins become reprehensible, just as a honey lover is repelled by it when he learns that it has poison in it. This is how fear burns desires; disciplines the organs; subordinates the heart and gives it tranquility. It also enables the heart to rid itself of pride, hatred, and envy; and it leaves it absorbed in it (fear). Hence, the heart becomes preoccupied with its own worries and looks towards its best interest in the long run. It is then engaged in only matters like meditation, self-analysis and struggle. It cherishes its time and moments.' [Ihya: 4/160].

Abdullah ibn Mubarak (rahimahullah) said about fear:" When night befalls, they endure it and see it through bowing in ruku.Fear has released their sleep, so they stand and acquire
security in vigilance."

Hasan ibn Hani (rahimahullah) composed the following (it has been credited to Imam Shafi`ee (rahimahullah)): "Fear Allah and hope for every good thing from Him; Don't follow your adamant self, lest you regret it;Remain in between hope and fear and you will rejoice with the Pardon of Allah if you submit."[Muajjamul Udaba: 17/303 credited to Imam Shafi`ee and also in the Divan of Hasan.]

Taqwa: Fear of Allah
Ibn Juzayy said in his dictionary of terms from the introduction to his tafsir: "Taqwa's meaning is fear, clinging to obedience to Allah and abandoning disobedience to Him. It is the sum of all good."

Five degrees of taqwa:
That the slave should protect himself from kufr (covering over the truth), and that is the station of Islam;
That he should protect himself from acts of disobedience and forbidden things, and it is the station of turning or repentance (tawbah);
That he should protects himself from doubtful matters, and that is the station of caution or carefulness (wara');
That he should protect himself from even those things that are permitted, and that is the station of doing without (zuhd);
That he should protect himself from the presence of other than Allah in his heart, and it is the presence of witnessing (mushahadah).

Hadith - Al-Tirmidhi #5140, Narrated Hudhayfah
The Prophet (saws) said, "By Him in Whose hand my soul is, you must enjoin what is reputable and forbid what is disreputable, or Allah will certainly soon send punishment from Himself to you. Then you will make supplication and not receive an answer."

Hadith - Al-Tirmidhi #5142, Narrated AbuBakr as-Siddiq You people recite this verse, "You who believe, care for yourselves; he who goes astray cannot harm you when you are rightly guided." I heard Allah's Messenger (saws) say, "When people see something objectionable and do not change it, Allah will soon include them all in His punishment

Tears of Fear
Hadith - Al-Tirmidhi #5359, Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud
Allah's Messenger (saws) said, "If, through fear of Allah, tears--even to the extent of a fly's head--fall from any believer's eyes and drop on some part of his cheek, he will be kept away from Hell by Allah."

Sayings of the Salaf
`Umar ibn `Abdul `Azîz (rahimahullâh) used to say, "None can reach the station of taqwâ until he possesses neither action nor words that can be exposed to his embarrassment either in this world or the Hereafter." He was once asked, "When does the worshipper reach the peak of taqwâ? He replied, "If he put all his thoughts and desires in his heart on a plate and then wandered around in the market, he should not feel ashamed of anything there." He would frequently say, "The sign of the muttaqî (pious person who fears Allah swt much)
is to bridle oneself from speaking just like one in ihrâm bridles himself from speaking. The muttaqî need to be a scholar of the Sharî`ah, all of it, otherwise he leaves taqwâ without realising."

Practice what we have learned.
Every act of obedience adds to the scale of our Iman, increases it directly and indirectly. Directly in that the act of obedience is itself a portion of our Iman, and indirectly in that each act of obedience brings us closer to Allah Ta'aala and increases his aid and blessing upon us. This aids us in further acts of worship and obedience. Contrast this to the effects of each act of disobedience (either commission or omission): It detracts from our Iman directly and indirectly and decreases our closeness to Allah Ta'aala and diminishes His aid and blessing upon us.

Allah Ta'aala has used a variety of words to express the concept of fear in the Qur'an. Among them: Al-Faz', Al-Wara', Ar-Rahba, Al-Kheefa and Al-Khashya.

In Surah Al-Israa', Allah Ta'aala mentions the fact that He communicated the Qur'an in many pieces spread out over time so that it could be given to the people slowly.
Then, He Ta'aala says: {Qul aaminoo au laa tu'minoo. Inna alladhina ootoo al-'ilma min qablihi idhaa yutlaa 'alaihim yakhirroona lil adhqaani sujjadan. Wa yaquloona subhaana rabbinaa in kana wa'du rabbinaa lamaf'oolan} {Say: believe or don't believe. Surely, those who were given knowledge before it when it is recited to them fall on their faces in prostration. And they say exalted is our Lord. The promise of our Lord is surely to be fulfilled.} Al-Israa':108-109
The reaction of the believer to the verses of Allah Ta'aala is clear: They fall to their faces in prostration out of the realization that Allah Ta'aala is real, and His word is Truth, and out of fear of displeasing Him or incurring His wrath. They know that the promise of Allah Ta'aala - and the promise of Allah Ta'aala here is His promise to come to the aid of the believers in this world and in the hereafter - is surely to come to pass and there is no power able to turn back His decree in the least. One who truly places his belief and reliance in Allah Ta'aala will be free from fear in this life and in the hereafter.

Allah Ta'aala said, speaking about the events of Qiyaamah:
{Wa 'anat al-wujuhu lil hayyi al-qayyoom wa qad khaaba man hamala dhulman.Wa man ya'mal min as-saalihaati wa huwa mu'minun falaa yakhaafu dhulman wa laa hadhman}
{And the faces are bowed before the Living, the Maintainer and whoever carries any oppression is dejected in loss. And whoever has done good deeds and is a believer has no fear of oppression nor of any diminishing} Taha:111-112

Note the combination of belief and good deeds.
Belief without good deeds will not free one from the fear and punishment of Allah Ta'aala in the hereafter. Good deeds without belief are nothing. Allah Ta'aala has described them elsewhere in the Qur'an as "like a mirage in the desert". Oppression in the first verse means shirk and all other lesser sins along with it. Oppression in the second verse means that he has no fear of being punished unfairly, or without sin.

fear of Allah arises out of study and knowledge about Allah Ta'aala, His sublime attributes and his Sharee'ah or ordinances for us to be able to please and worship Him.
There is no other route to this objective other than this. Animals and the rest of Allah's creation cannot fear Allah Ta'aala because they cannot learn or understand. Likewise, those who have been blocked by their desires or misled by innovations and deviations in belief can never truly fear Allah Ta'aala, because the road to knowledge/consciousness of Allah Ta'aala has been blocked.

It is those most in knowledge of Allah Ta'aala who have the chance to
fear Allah most.

Allah Ta'aala said:
{Wa min an-naasi wa ad-dawaabi wa al-an'aami mukhtalifun alwaanuhu kadhalika innamaa yakhshaa Allaha min 'ibaadihi al-'ulamaa' inna Allaha 'azizun ghafoorun Inna alladhina yatloona kitaaba Allahi wa aqaamu as-salaata wa anfaqoo mimaa razaqnaahum sirran wa 'alaaniyatan yarjoona tijaaratan lan taboora Li yuwaffiyahum ujoorahum wa yazeedahum min fadhlihi innahu ghafoorun shakoor}
{And among the people and the creatures and the cattle different colors likewise, the only ones who fear Allah among his slaves are the knowledgeable. Surely, Allah is Mighty, Forgiving. Surely, those who recite the Book of Allah and maintain the prayer and spend from that which We have provided them in secret and openly look forward to a transaction which will not be fruitless. So that He may give them their recompense and add an increase from His Generosity. Surely Allah is extremely Forgiving and Grateful.} Faatir:28-30

Fear of Allah, which comes from consciousness of Allah Ta'aala must be present at all times. This is what prevents someone from falling
into bad deeds.
The Prophet salallaahu 'alayhee wa sallam said: "Saba'atun yadhillahum Allahu fiy dhillihi yauma lal dhillun illa dhilluhu: ... rajalun da'athu imra'atun dhatu mansabu wa jamaalun
faqaala: inniy akhaafu Allaha."
"Seven whom Allah will shade with His shade on a day when there is NO shade except His shade: ..., ...and a man who was called by a woman of social status and beauty but who said: 'I fear Allah.'" Muslim & Bukhari

Who is a better man, he who founds his house on the fear of Allah and His good pleasure, or he who builds on the brink of a crumbling precipice, so that it will fall with him into the fire of Hell? Allah does not guide the wrongdoers.Sura: 9, Ayat: 109.

In one of the Khutba's of Umar bin al Khattab , after reciting the Fard sections of the Khutba, the rest of his Khutba consisted of only 2 words. He said: "Ittaqullah", meaning "Fear Allah". After saying this he lead the Jumma prayer.

"It is only Shaytan that suggests to you the fear of his Auliya (supporters and friends), so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are true believers." [TMQ 3:175]

Muslims in the past, and their immense Fear of Allah:
If we look to the Muslims of the past we can see the manifestation of having firm conviction in Allah (swt). E.g. When Bilal (ra) was made to lie on the hot sand and a boulder was placed upon his chest. What was his reply? He replied "Ahad, Ahad", "One" meaning only one God. Before the Prophet (saw) passed away he made a list of the hypocrites
and left it with Hudhayfa. After the Prophet (saw) had passed away Umar bin al Khattab (ra) went to Hudhayfa and asked him if his own name was on that list.
This is the fear of Allah that they had. It is this mentality which allowed the Muslims prior to the establishment of Islam in Madina able to endure all trials, tribulations and torture which they went through. And it is this mentality that allowed to Muslims to overcome any obstacle their faced and crush any army in their path. We can see this in the words of Khalid bin Waleed to the Roman emperor:"I will send you an army that loves death the way you love life!"Even if we look to our rulers in the past they understood what it meant to fear
Allah, let us look at one of the statements of the Sahaba, Sa'id ibn Amr al Jumahi (ra) advised Umar (ra) at the beginning of his rule:"I adjure you to fear Allah in dealing with people and do not fear people in your relationship with Allah"Contrast this to the rulers of today. We need to gain this understanding of fear of Allah for us as an Ummah to regain our rightful status on this earth.

the words of the Prophet (saw):"Bring glad tidings to this Ummah, she will have the power, the pride, the deen, the victory and the authority on earth. So he who worked to reap the rewards in this life rather than in the hereafter, he would have no reward in the hereafter [Imam Ahmad]

Fear Allah (Taken from the compilation of Abu Maryam Majdi Fathi Al-
Syeds Fear of Allah)
Allah says in sura Ale Imraan (102): "O you who believe! Fear Allah as He is supposed to be feared and do not die unless you are in the state of submission."
Also in sura Nisa(1) Allah says: "O you who believe! Fear Allah who has created you from a single soul and then created from that its mate and then from them disseminated many men and women. Fear Allah in whose name you plead with each other and respect your relatives. Allah is forever a guardian over you."

Again in sura Nisa (131) Allah says: "Verily, We have enjoined on those who were given the Book before you, and on you (O Muslims) to fear Allah. From amongst His servants, only those who know fear Him."

(Fatir 28) There are several other places in the quran and the authentic sunnah where we Muslims are commanded to fear Allah (swt).
Infact in the beginning of sura Baqara Allah (swt) says that this quran is no doubt a guidance for people who are mutaqeen i.e. God conscious and God fearing.

When the Prophet (s) sent Muad (rd) to Yemen, he(s) enjoined the following upon him: "O Muaadh, fear Allah wherever you may be, and follow up a bad deed with a good one and it will wipe it out, and behave towards people with beautiful manners."(Tirmidhee, Ahmed)

Today we have gotten ourselves so much involved in this materialistic world that we have forgotten what is for sure to come; things that we are supposed to believe as part of our faith. Yes, about death that every soul shall taste; the torment of the grave, the day of judgment when all of us will be accountable for our deeds and actions in this world; and finally the everlasting life after that. Today when we hear people talk about these things, we are unmoved. Our attitude is care free; well see when it comes (ASTAGFIRULLAH). When we hear
about torment of hell, or the bounties of paradise our hearts do not feel anything. They do not tremble, nor do they get overjoyed with the pleasures of paradise. Why is that ? The simple answer to this question is that the fear of Allah has left our hearts. We have made this world if not sole, a major concern and purpose of this life. The love of this world and its material things have settled in our hearts to an extent that this religion that Allah (swt) has blessed us with has become a secondary thing. We prefer this worldly life and its
temporary pleasures over following Allah and His Messenger (s). The hearts have died before their bodies and as a result, they have lost both worlds. Our predecessors, the salaf and those who followed them used to fear Allah tremendously. So much so that tears would fall involuntarily and their feet would swell because of their long nights on the prayer rugs. They knew that death would come with all its anxieties and turmoil; the grave would appear with its nerve-racking experience; the trumpet would be blown and the Day of Judgment would
come down with all its hair-raising realities.

If we fear Allah in this world than inshallah we will be spared the fright of those moments; as Allah says in suraQaaf (22): "Certainly you were adverse to this (moment of death), so now that we have raised the curtains from you, your sight is sharp and keen."

In order to fear Allah properly we need to understand what is meant by fearing Allah, and to look at the companions of the prophet(s) as to how they feared Allah. When someone fears something, he tries to run away from it. However we find a remarkable difference that when man fears his Creator he seeks refuge in Him and begins to obey Him.
This is the awe of Allah which is quite apparent in the verse in Dhariyat (50): "So run (escape) towards Him..."

Ibn Abass(rd)explained this verse as meaning: "Run towards Him through repentance; escape from Him to Him and obey Him."It is not enough to fear Allah without actually obeying Him. Infact this fear should cause us to follow Allah's guidelines, and keep away from His prohibitions.

We find many merits of fear of Allah in the quran and sunnah. Allah in sura Ar Rahman (46) says; "And he who fears his Lords rank will have two gardens (in Paradise)". Mujahid said that this refers to a person who thinks about committing a sin but doesnt go through with his thought because of Allah's fear.

In sura Noor (37) Allah says: "They fear a day in which hearts and eyes will turn (out of bewilderment)."

Hasan Basri says: "What do you think of a day when people will stand on their feet for 50,000 years without having a bite to eat, a drop to drink until their necks will break from thirst and their stomachs will burn out of hunger. Then they (the disobedient) will turn to Hell and drink from a fountain whose water will be boiling and whose heat will be scorching."

This is no fairy tale. This is quran and sunnah which is the truth. After listening to all this how can we not fear our Lord and still say we believe in Him and what is said in the quran and sunnah. Or is it that we are sure that we are prepared to meet our Lord as obedient servants who wont go through this trial. What is that has beguiled us about our generous Lord as we close the doors and commit sins behind the curtains. What will become of us when our organs
will testify against us?

Anas (rd) narrates that the Prophet (s) gave such a sermon that he had not heard anything like it before. In this sermon he said: "If you knew what I know, you would laugh more seldom and cry more often." The companions covered their faces as they were crying and sniffling. (Bukhari)

Adi ibn Hatim (rd) says that the Prophet (s) said: "Allah will speak to each and every one of you without any translator. So you will try to see who is more fortunate than you and you will see nothing except what you have sent forward (deeds); you will try to see who is less fortunate than you and you will only see what you have sent forward. You will look in front of you and you will see Hell. So fear (protect yourselves from) Hell, even though it maybe through a date."

Abu Hurairah(rd) says that he heard the Prophet(s) said: "Seven kinds of people will be granted the Shade of Allah on a day that will offer no other shade except Allahs. He mentioned them until he (s) spoke about a person who is invited by a beautiful respectable woman (to commit sin ) but refrains from doing so by saying : I fear Allah."

Abu Hurairah (rd) narrates that the Prophet (s) said: "A person who cries out of fear of Allah will not enter Hell until milk can go back into the udder." (Tirmidhi, Nisai, and Ibn Majah)

When we look at the lives of the companions, we see that they had the great fear of Allah, and due to this they used to cry a lot.

Omar (rd) ,who was considered hard hearted used to cry out of fear of Allah. Abdullah ibn Shaddad says that he heard the sobbing of Omar(rd) in the last row of prayers as he was reciting the verse: "I complain about my grief and sorrow to Allah."( Yusuf 86)

Ibrahim Taymi says: "I have met sixty companions of the Prophet (s) in this masjid, the youngest of whom was Harith bin Suwaid (rd). I heard him recite Surah Zilzal until he reached the last verse: So who ever performs an atoms worth of good will see it (its reward). He cried and said: This is indeed a grave account. "

And indeed in the lives of the Sahaba we have a good example of God fearing.

Abu Imraan Al-Juni reports that Abu Bakr (rd) used to say: "I wish I was a hair in the side of a believer."

Hassan narrates that Abu Bakr use to say: "If only I was a tree cut down and eaten."

Abdullah bin Omar (rd) says that Omar (rd) used to say: "If a goat had died with the driftage of the Euphrates, I would worry that Omar might be held accountable for it."

Omar (rd) also used to say: "If someone announced from the heavens that everybody will enter Paradise except one person, I would fear that that person would be me."

THIS was the fear of the second Khalifa of the Muslims, about whom the prophet (s) said that if there were to be any prophet after me, it would be Omar (rd).

Abdullah ibn Abbas (rd) said to Omar(rd) when he was stabbed: "O Leader of the Believers! You accepted Islam when others disbelieved; you struggled along with the Prophet (s) when others deserted him(s); the Prophet(s) died while he was pleased with you; no two people have disagreed with you and you are about to die as a martyr." Omar(rd) replied: "The flattered is the one whom you flatter. By Allah! If I had what ever the sun rose upon I would give it away in order to protect myself from what is about to rise (upon me)."

Can we even think of comparing ourselves with the status of Omar(rd)? Of course not. But even with his high status and being among the ushraemubasshara his fear of Allah (swt) was tremendous. He was aware and truly believed in the true realities of what is to come. We can imagine where we stand.

Abdur-Rahman ibn Abi Layla narrates from Abu Dharr(rd): " By Allah! If you knew what I knew you would not find joy with your wives and you would not be able to relax on your beds. By Allah! I wish that Allah would have created me as a tree whose fruit is eaten."

Ali (rd) describes the characteristics of the Companions: "By Allah I have seen the Companions of the Prophet (s) such that I have not seen anybody like them today. They used to wake up as if they had ridden goats all night with their clothes and hair dishellved. They spent the night performing ruku and sajdah for Allah, reciting the Book and alternating between their feet and foreheads. And when they awoke in the morn, they remembered Allah and remained like a tree (whose branches) swaying in the wind with their eyes pouring tears so much that they wet their clothes."

As Ali(rd) said, "Today is deeds without reckoning and tomorrow is reckoning without deeds. "

We have time to learn from the Sahaba and the pious predecessors and return to Allah in repentance and remorse for the time that we have lost so that we may attain true success both in this world and the hereafter.

Hasan al-Basari: "Believers expedited their fear in this world so Allah will give them security on the Day of Judgement. The Hypocrites put off their fear in this world so Allah will instil fear in them on the Day of Judgement. And as for he who fears the rank of his Lord and prevents his self from desires, Paradise is certainly his abode." (An-Naziaat 40)

Those with knowledge fear Allah the Most.
"Those truly fear Allah, among His servants are those who have knowledge: for Allah is exalted in Might, oft Forgiving" Surah Fatir: 28

Abu Dharr relates that the Messenger of Allah said: "I see that which you do not. The Heavens cries (on account of the heavy load of the angels prostrating) and is justified in doing so. There is not a space equal to four fingers in it but is occupied by angels who are prostrating before Allah. By Allah! If you could know what I know, you would laugh little and weep much; you would not enjoy your wives in bed and would rush into the streets and jungles in search of Allah's refuge!" (T)

Abu Sa'id Khudri relates that the Prophet said: "How can I feel happy when the Angel Israfil (the angel appointed to blow the trumpet on the Day of Judgement) has put His lips to the trumpet waiting the hear the Order to blow the trumpet." This very much distressed the companions, so he told them (to seek comfort through reciting) `Hasbunal-laho wa naimal wakeel' (sufficient for us is Allah an excellent Guardian is He) (T)

Anas bin Malik relates: The Prophet delivered before us a sermon, the like of which I had never heard from Him before. In the course of it He said: "If you could know what I know, you would laugh little and weep much." There upon those present covered their faces and began to sob loudly. (SB)

Fearing the Day of Judgement
Miqdad relates that he heard the Prophet said: "On the Day of Judgement the sun will be so close to the people, as if it were only a mile away from them. The people will perspire according to the gravity of their actions. The perspiration of some will rise to their ankles, of others to their knees, of some to their waists and some will be bridled by their perspiration." The Prophet pointed to His mouth by way of illustration. (SM)

Ayesha relates that she heard the Prophet say, "On the Day of Judgement people will be gathered together barefooted, unclothed and uncircumcised." I said: "Messenger of Allah , will the men and women be together looking at one another?" He said: "Ayesha, the occasion will be to grave and terrifying for them to be at ease to look at one another!" (SB)

"O mankind! Fear your Lord! For the convulsion of the Hour (of Judgement) will be a thing terrible! The day you shall see it, every mother giving suck shall forget her suckling babe, and every pregnant female shall drop her load (unformed): Thou shall see mankind as in a drunken riot, yet not drunk: but dreadful will be the Wrath of Allah." Surat-ul Hajj:1-2

Fearing the Hell fire
"And what will explain to thee what Hell fire is? Nothing does it permit to endure, and nothing does it leave alone! Darkening and changing the colour of man!" Surat-ul Muddaththir: 27-28

Ibn Mas'oud relates that the Prophet said: "On the Day of Judgement Hell will be dragged and it will have seventy thousand bridles, each bridle being pulled by seventy thousand angels." (SM) Nu'man ibn Bashir relates that he heard the Prophet say that the least torture in the Hell will be that two embers of fire will be put under the feet of the guilty person whereby his brain will be boiling. He will consider himself the most severely punished person and yet he will be the least punished person. (SB)

Abu Hurayra also relates that the Messenger of Allah said, "The fire of the children of Adam which they kindle is a seventieth part of the fire of Jahannam (Hell Fire)." They said, "Messenger of Allah, this fire is certainly enough!" He said, "That fire is sixty nine times greater!" (MM)

"Indeed the tree of Zaqqum, the tree of the sinner! Like molten brass it will boil in their insides, like the boiling of scalding water. (A voice will say:) Take him and drag him into the midst of hell, then pour over his head the torment of boiling water (saying): Taste! Truly you were mighty, noble!" Surat-ud Dukhan: 43-49